Datapoint Kriol/Position of tense, aspect, and mood markers in relation to the verb

Tense, aspect, and mood auxiliaries/particles generally precede the verb in Kriol. Two progressive aspectual suffixes, -in~-ing and -(a)bat, follow it.

Values

Immediately following the verb Frequency: 36.8%

Example 25-145:
Dumaji ai bin askimbat kwestyin la thad munanga na weya alabat wek jeya.
Dumaji
because
ai
1sg
bin
pst
ask-im-bat
ask-tr-prog
kwestyin
question
la
loc
thad
dem
munanga
non.Aboriginal
na
now
weya
subord
alabat
3pl
wek
work
jeya.
there
Because I was questioning the non-Aboriginals who are working there.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-215:
Orla gel en boi bin nakam-bat jelp garra kura, garra burluman kura.
Orla
pl
gel
girl
en
and
boi
boy
bin
pst
nak-am-bat
hit-tr-prog
jelp
refl
garra
com/ins
kura,
dung
garra
com/ins
burluman
cattle
kura.
dung
The girls and boys were hitting each other with dung, with cattle dung.

Source: Hudson 1985: 48

Example 25-144:
Ai bin gibitbat la ola kid tu sambala mani blanga plei.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
gib-it-bat
give-tr-prog
la
loc
ola
pl
kid
child
tu
too
sam-bala
some-adj2
mani
money
blanga
dat/poss
plei.
play
I was also giving the children some money for playing.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-5:
Dij kamel im likimbat bo dat kanggaru irrahol.
Dij
prox
kamel
camel
im
3sg
lik-im-bat
lick-tr-prog
bo
dat
dat
dem
kanggaru
kangaroo
irrahol.
ear
This camel is licking the kangaroo's ear.
Example 25-213:
Dijlot kid dei raning insaid la haus wen im reining.
Dij-lot
prox-pl
kid
child
dei
3pl
ran-ing
run-prog2
insaid
inside
la
loc
haus
house
wen
subord
im
3sg
rein-ing.
rain-prog2
These kids are running inside the house when it is raining.
Example 25-210:
Nomo gota meit=gun im jidanabat [...] olgaman G.
Nomo
neg
gota
com
meit=gun
mate=contr
im
3sg
jidan-abat
sit-prog
[...]
[...]
olgaman
old.woman
G.
G.
Without any companion she's sitting there, old lady G.
Example 25-209:
Aim heting fut.
Aim
1sg:prog
het-ing
hurt-prog2
fut.
foot
My foot hurts.
Example 25-164:
Wal jad lilboi imin reken frog bin likimbat feis en pulumbat heya.
Wal
well
jad
dem
lilboi
little.boy
im=in
3sg=pst
reken
think/say
frog
frog
bin
pst
lik-im-bat
lick-tr-prog
feis
face
en
and
pul-um-bat
pull-tr-prog
heya.
hair
Well that little boy said/thought that the frog licked his face and pulled his hair.

Source: Galmurr & Willika 1996

Confidence:
Very certain

Immediately preceding the verb Frequency: 36.8%

Example 25-99:
Wot kain yunmi gona toktok?
Wot
what
kain
kind
yunmi
1du.incl
gona
fut
tok~tok?
red.talk
What (i.e. which language) are we going to speak?
Example 25-105:
Mibala yujdu idimbat la bush.
Mibala
1pl
yujdu
hab
id-im-bat
eat-tr-prog
la
loc
bush.
bush
We used to eat it in the bush.
Example 25-130:
Bat sambala bin tok: "Yu labda kaman; woda gada gajimap wi." Gudjob thad olgumen bin lafta mub.
Bat
but
sam-bala
some-adj2
bin
pst
tok:
say
"Yu
2sg
labda
oblig
kaman;
come
woda
water
gada
fut/oblig
gajimap
reach:tr
wi."
1pl
Gud-job
good-job
thad
dem
olgumen
woman
bin
pst
lafta
oblig
mub.
move
But some people said: "You have to come (because) the water is going to reach us." Just as well that woman had to move.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-208:
Imin oldei nesimbat tu jet faiya.
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always/hab
nes-im-bat
nurse-tr-prog
tu
too
jet
dem
faiya.
fire
It used to look after the fire too. (crocodile in myth)

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-212:
Ai gada gedim kokiroj sprei en kilim olabat.
Ai
1sg
gada
fut/oblig
ged-im
get-tr
kokiroj
cockroach
sprei
spray
en
and
kil-im
kill-tr
olabat.
3pl
I will/should get cockroach spray and kill them. OR: I'm going to get cockroach spray and kill them. (Orig. Transl.)

Source: Bennett 1986: 2

Example 25-216:
Yu shudbi wajambat jelp.
Yu
2sg
shudbi
should
waj-am-bat
wash-tr-prog
jelp.
refl
You should wash yourself.

Source: Hudson 1985: 32

Example 25-149:
Wi bin siyim garra orla kid.
Wi
1sg
bin
pst
siy-im
see-tr
garra
com/ins
orla
pl
kid.
child
We saw her with the children.

Source: Hudson 1985: 74

Example 25-214:
I maitbi garra go la Debi.
I
3sg
maitbi
maybe
garra
fut/oblig
go
go
la
loc
Debi.
Derby
He might have to go to Derby.

Source: Hudson 1985: 31

Confidence:
Very certain

In a leftward position Frequency: 26.3%

Example 25-24:
Dei bin ol luginat la im.
Dei
3pl
bin
pst
ol
all
lug-in-at
look-prog-at
la
loc
im.
3sg
They all looked at him.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-166:
Imin oldei telim mi “givit bek langa im thet taka blanga im, yu bin takat naf, givit bek la thet beibi".
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
tel-im
tell-tr
mi
1sg
“giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
langa
loc
im
3sg
thet
dem
taka
tucker
blanga
dat/poss
im,
3sg
yu
2sg
bin
pst
takat
eat
naf,
enough
giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
la
loc
thet
dem
beibi".
baby
She used to say to me "give it back to her, that food of hers, you have eaten enough, give it back to the baby".
Confidence:
Very certain