Datapoint Kriol/Definite articles

The answer to the question of whether definite and indefinite articles exist in Kriol is not straightforward. Sandefur (1979) answers in the negative for both. Nicholls (2006, 2010) argues convincingly for the Roper River variety that the determiner det, derived from the English demonstrative that, has no deictic meaning component and is used as a recognitional determiner – that is, it is used in situations where the referent of a NP is considered as identifiable by the addressee, including anaphoric contexts. As such it is close in function and grammaticalization status to a definite article; however it is not used obligatorily in all "definite" contexts, but only if the identification of the referent is actually at stake and/or the referent is topical. The recognitional determiner also occurs with generic NPs (see Feature 30 "Generic noun phrases in subject function") and inherently definite NPs such as proper names.
Since this determiner, similarly to the German article, simultaneously fills a slot in the demonstrative paradigm and is used as a text-deictic demonstrative, Value 2 is chosen. As it has no spatial deictic value, it is glossed as DEM in the examples.

Values

Definite article identical to a demonstrative

Example 25-69:
Det R. en J., yu sabe dubala?
Det
dem
R.
R.
en
and
J.,
J.
yu
2sg
sabe
know
dubala?
3du
R. and J., do you know the two?

Source: Nicholls 2006: 3

Example 25-161:
Im lib la keib, det larrpburniny.
M
3sg
lib
live
la
loc
keib,
cave
det
dem
larrpburniny.
wallaby
It lives in caves, the wallaby.

Source: Nicholls 2006: 7

Example 25-162:
Im smelim thet bif.
Im
3sg
smel-im
smell-tr
thet
dem
bif.
meat/beef
He smells the meat.
Example 25-40:
Tubala olmen bin lisen langa tubala na.
Tubala
two
olmen
men
bin
pst
lisen
listen
langa
loc
tubala
3du
na.
now
The two men listened to the two (kangaroos) then.
Example 25-35:
Thet kenggaru bin toktok.
Thet
dem
kenggaru
kangaroo
bin
pst
tok~tok.
red.talk
The kangaroo was talking.
Example 25-78:
Gardiya bin oldei ringim thet bel.
Gardiya
white.person
bin
pst
oldei
always/hab
ring-im
ring-tr
thet
dem
bel.
bell
A white person used to ring a bell every day. (context: work on the cattle stations, when speaker was young).
Example 25-163:
Dijan iya im mukarra tri. Thad lif pat bla mukarra, im gudwan bla so.
Dijan
prox:adj
iya
here
im
3sg
mukarra
river.pandanus
tri.
tree
Thad
dem
lif
leaf
pat
part
bla
dat/poss
mukarra,
river.pandanus
im
3sg
gud-wan
good-adj
bla
dat/poss
so.
sore
This here is a river pandanus. The leaf of the river pandanus is good for sores.

Source: Daniels et al. 2001

Example 25-12:
Ai bin faindim det kap bla det wumun.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
faind-im
find-tr
det
dem
kap
cup
bla
dat/poss
det
dem
wumun.
woman
I found the woman's cup.

Source: Hudson 1985: 71

Example 25-169:
Mi thad fes pesin bin gaji fish ba alabat.
Mi
1sg
thad
eq.cop
fes
first
pesin
person
bin
pst
gaji
get:tr
fish
fish
ba
dat/poss
alabat.
3pl
I was the first person who caught a fish for everyone.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998b

Example 25-168:
Dijan longtaim la fam en wi bin abum ol fam dea langa lolebul. Dijan la Katharrain en mai fatha yusta wek dea blanga dat men. Imin - dat men imin neim ol Jim.
Dijan
prox:adj
longtaim
long.ago
la
loc
fam
farm
en
and
wi
1sg
bin
pst
ab-um
have-tr
ol
old
fam
farm
dea
there
langa
loc
lolebul.
Low.Level
Dijan
prox:adj
la
loc
Katharrain
Katherine
en
and
mai
1sg.poss
fatha
father
yusta
hab
wek
work
dea
there
blanga
dat/poss
dat
dem
men.
man
Im=in
3sg=pst
-
 
dat
dem
men
man
im=in
3sg=pst
neim
name
ol
old
Jim.
Jim
This was long ago on a farm and we had an old farm there at Low Level (Crossing). This was in Katherine, and my father used to work there for that man. He- that man, his name was Old Jim. OR: This happened a long time ago on a farm. There was this old farm at the Low Level at Katherine and my father used to work there for a man named Jim. (Orig. Transl.)

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-98:
Thet the mindubala lengwij na wi toking la yu dijey taka.
Thet
dem
the
eq.cop
mindubala
1du.excl
lengwij
language
na
now
wi
1pl
tok-ing
talk-prog2
la
loc
yu
2sg
dij-ey
prox-way
taka.
plant.food
It's OUR language that we're speaking to you [when giving you the word for] this edible plant.
Example 25-167:
Imin givit thet K. langa mai bratha.
Im=in
3sg=pst
giv-it
give-tr
thet
dem
K.
K.
langa
loc
mai
1sg.poss
bratha.
brother
He gave K. to my brother (in marriage).

Source: Fieldwork Mark Harvey

Example 25-166:
Imin oldei telim mi “givit bek langa im thet taka blanga im, yu bin takat naf, givit bek la thet beibi".
Im=in
3sg=pst
oldei
always
tel-im
tell-tr
mi
1sg
“giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
langa
loc
im
3sg
thet
dem
taka
tucker
blanga
dat/poss
im,
3sg
yu
2sg
bin
pst
takat
eat
naf,
enough
giv-it
give-tr
bek
back
la
loc
thet
dem
beibi".
baby
She used to say to me "give it back to her, that food of hers, you have eaten enough, give it back to the baby".
Example 25-165:
Thet min imin goap mo haya.
Thet
dem
min
mean
im=in
3sg=pst
goap
go.up
mo
more
haya.
higher
That means he climbed up higher.
Example 25-164:
Wal jad lilboi imin reken frog bin likimbat feis en pulumbat heya.
Wal
well
jad
dem
lilboi
little.boy
im=in
3sg=pst
reken
think/say
frog
frog
bin
pst
lik-im-bat
lick-tr-prog
feis
face
en
and
pul-um-bat
pull-tr-prog
heya.
hair
Well that little boy said/thought that the frog licked his face and pulled his hair.

Source: Galmurr & Willika 1996

Confidence:
Intermediate