Datapoint Kriol/Occurrence of nominal plural markers

Plural marking is rather variable in Kriol. Plural marking with humans – by reduplication of the head noun (rare) or a modifying adjective, the use of plural determiners ole ~ ola ~ orla ~ olda or the plural suffix -lot ~ -lat on demonstratives – is the norm. Plural marking with inanimates is rare and absence of plural marking with humans is rare, but variation is found in all categories. (Examples 136 and 145 illustrate a noun phrase with human, plural reference without a plural marker.) Plural-marked nouns do not co-occur with numeral quantification.

Values

Variable plural marking of human or inanimate nouns

Example 25-116:
Thet olgamanolgaman olabat jingat na "[...]".
Thet
dem
olgaman~olgaman
red.older.woman
olabat
3pl
jing-at
sing-out
na
now
"[...]".
[...]
Those women, they call out now: "[...]"
Example 25-132:
D. im med langa ole boi.
D.
D.
im
3sg
med
mad
langa
loc
ole
pl
boi.
boy
D. is mad with the boys.
Example 25-136:
Wi yusdu habim kid la bush.
Wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
hab-im
have-tr
kid
child
la
loc
bush.
bush
We used to have children in the bush.
Example 25-133:
Yu kan tok la thislot medbaga.
Yu
2sg
kan
can.neg
tok
talk
la
loc
this-lot
prox-pl
med-baga.
mad-adj3
You can’t talk to these mad ones (children).
Example 25-134:
Nomo gata lif, thislot botel tri.
Nomo
neg
gata
com
lif,
leaf
this-lot
prox-pl
botel
bottle
tri.
tree
They don’t have leaves, these bottle trees!
Example 25-140:
Yu bin ji ole nat [...] boling dan?
Yu
2sg
bin
pst
ji
see
ole
pl
nat
nut
[...]
[...]
bol-ing
fall-prog2
dan?
down
Did you see the nuts falling down?
Example 25-45:
Fes yu garra putim detlat faib ting la yu finga [...].
Fes
first
yu
2sg
garra
fut/oblig
put-im
put-tr
det-lat
dem-pl
faib
five
ting
thing
la
loc
yu
2sg
finga
finger
[...].
[...]
First you have to put those five things in your hand [...].

Source: Hudson 1985: 30

Example 25-139:
Imin polis treka olegija na, til imin hevim ole children.
Im=in
3sg=pst
polis
police
treka
tracker
olegija
altogether
na,
now
til
till
im=in
3sg=pst
hev-im
have-tr
ole
pl
children.
children
He was a police tracker for good then, until he had children.
Example 25-113:
Dei bin jingginabat dislot olmenolmenwan.
Dei
3pl
bin
pst
jingg-in-abat
think-prog2-about
dis-lot
prox-pl
olmen~olmen-wan.
red.men-adj
They were thinking about it, these old men.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-131:
Im kukumbat eig.
Im
3sg
kuk-um-bat
cook-tr-prog
eig.
egg
He is cooking eggs.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-135:
Yubala go gedim main daga. Nomo wori bla ola pipul.
Yubala
2pl
go
go
ged-im
get-tr
main
1sg.poss
daga.
tucker
Nomo
neg
wori
worry
bla
dat/poss
ola
pl
pipul.
people
You lot go and get my food. Don’t worry about the people.

Source: Bennett 1986: 1

Example 25-137:
Imin ded silip eniwei la ola rok.
Im=in
3sg=pst
ded
dead
silip
sleep
eniwei
anyway
la
loc
ola
pl
rok.
rock
He went sound asleep on the rocks.

Source: Galmurr & Willika 1996

Example 25-138:
Ai bin bilimap olda eig.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
bil-im-ap
fill-tr-up
olda
pl
eig.
egg
I filled it up with the eggs.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-141:
Wal dislot bed, fram antop dei bin – dei bin lukinat na.
Wal
well
dis-lot
prox-pl
bed,
bird
fram
from
antop
above
dei
3pl
bin
pst
 
dei
3pl
bin
pst
luk-in-at
look-prog2-out
na.
now
But these birds were watching from above.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-145:
Dumaji ai bin askimbat kwestyin la thad munanga na weya alabat wek jeya.
Dumaji
because
ai
1sg
bin
pst
ask-im-bat
ask-tr-prog
kwestyin
question
la
loc
thad
dem
munanga
non.Aboriginal
na
now
weya
subord
alabat
3pl
wek
work
jeya.
there
Because I was questioning the non-Aboriginals who are working there.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-80:
Ai bin gowin skul orlataim. Afda tharran ai orlas kambek en abam dina en go pleibat garra orla kid.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
gow-in
go-prog2
skul
school
orlataim.
always
Afda
after
tharran
dist:adj
ai
1sg
orlas
always
kam-bek
come-back
en
and
ab-am
have-tr
dina
dinner
en
and
go
go
plei-bat
play-prog
garra
com/ins
orla
pl
kid.
child
I used to go to school every day. After school I would come back and have dinner and then go and play with the children.

Source: Hudson 1985: 32

Example 25-144:
Ai bin gibitbat la ola kid tu sambala mani blanga plei.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
gib-it-bat
give-tr-prog
la
loc
ola
pl
kid
child
tu
too
sam-bala
some-adj2
mani
money
blanga
dat/poss
plei.
play
I was also giving the children some money for playing.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-22:
Thei bin bayimbat ola nyuwannyuwan modiga na. Yu luk olkain modiga nyuwannyuwan la B.
Thei
3pl
bin
pst
bay-im-bat
buy-tr-prog
ola
pl
nyuwan~nyuwan
red.new:adj
modiga
car
na.
now
Yu
2sg
luk
look
olkain
all.kind
modiga
car
nyuwan~nyuwan
red.new:adj
la
loc
B.
B.
They bought new cars then. You look at all the cars that are new at B. (place name)

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-143:
Wanbala olmen bin ran garrimap thad boks. Imin rekin im thad bigwan-bigwan peket.
Wan-bala
one-adj2
olmen
man
bin
pst
ran
run
garrimap
pick:up
thad
dem
boks.
box
Im=in
3sg=pst
rekin
think/say
im
3sg
thad
dem
bigwan-bigwan
red.big:adj
peket.
packet
One old man ran and picked up that box. He reckoned it was those big packets.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-142:
Ala munanga bin lus olabat shap [...] ebarrijing!
Ala
pl
munanga
non-Aboriginal
bin
pst
lus
lose
olabat
3pl
shap
shop
[...]
[...]
ebarrijing!
belongings
The non-Aboriginals lost their shops [...] (all their) belongings!

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Confidence:
Intermediate