Datapoint Chinese Pidgin English/Passive constructions

As in Chinese, there are sentences in which the initial NP is understood as the object of the following verb, without any passive marking. Such sentences can be analyzed either as unmarked passive or as instances of topicalization of the object, with the subject being null. In one example, got may have been used as a passive marker.

Values

Passive without verbal coding Frequency: 90.0%

Example 20-129:
灣治米記快也
Wantchee makee fire.
Wantchee
want
makee
make
fire.
fire
It wants firing.

Source: Tong 1862: VI.22

Example 20-32:
深文基林謙
Some man killum him.
Some
some
man
man
killum
kill
him.
3sg
Someone killed him. OR: He has been murdered.

Source: Tong 1862: IV.72

Confidence:
Certain

Typical passive construction Frequency: 10.0%

Example 20-130:
地士卑士厚素合吉麽雞治
Thisee piecee house hap got mortgagee.
Thisee
dem
piecee
clf
house
house
hap
has
got
got
mortgagee.
mortgage
This house has been mortgaged.

Source: Tong 1862: IV.72

Confidence:
Very certain