Datapoint Sranan/Focusing of the noun phrase

The examples 272, 273 and 120 represent cases of contrastive or identificational focus. there are also cases of presentational or information focus, such as example 274.

There are also cases of left dislocation (with use of resumptive pronoun) and topicalization of constituents without a focus marker. these are not focus constructions, however.

oh, wan kronto srefi oom n. no man kapu?
[oh one coconut self uncle n neg can cut]
‘oh, even a coconut uncle n. can’t cut?’ (Winford & Migge 2008: 705)

Values

Cleft with copula before focus

Example 2-272:
Na yu fufuru mi moni!
Na
foc
yu
2sg
fufuru
steal
mi
my
moni!
money
It’s you that stole my money.

Source: Wilner 1992: 47

Example 2-273:
Na leriman a man de.
Na
foc
leriman
teacher
a
det
man
man
de.
cop
The man’s a TEACHER.

Source: Winford 1997: 277

Example 2-120:
A musu de taki na den pikin nyan a kuku.
A
it
musu
must
de
be
taki
comp
na
foc
den
the.pl
pikin
child
nyan
eat
a
det
kuku.
cake
It must be the case that it was the children who ate the cake.
Example 2-274:
Want na tu leisi mi nanga a man meki afsprak kaba.
Want
because
na
foc
tu
two
leisi
time
mi
1sg
nanga
and
a
det
man
man
meki
make
afsprak
appointment
kaba.
already
Because it’s twice that the guy and I made an appointment already.

Source: Winford 2008: 27

Confidence:
Very certain