Datapoint Batavia Creole (Tugu)/Passive constructions

In the Tugu corpus, there are examples with an overt agent for the two values. In the example for a prototypical passive (Value 1), the agent NP is headed by the preposition di 'of', and in the non-prototypical passive example (Value 3), the agent noun is marked by the preposition ku 'with'.

Values

Typical passive construction Frequency: 50.0%

Example 43-108:
[...] mas pincha ku ele na riba bar lama ki dja fai dibira bar di garu.
[...]
[...]
mas
and
pincha
spread
ku
obj
ele
3sg
na
loc
riba
upon
bar
earth
lama
mud
ki
rel
dja
pfv
fai
make
di-bira
pass-get
bar
earth
di
of
garu.
harrow
[…] and spread it on the muddy ground which has been turned into soil by the harrow.

Source: Maurer 2011: 100

Confidence:
Very certain

Passive without verbal coding Frequency: 50.0%

Example 43-109:
[...] tumpuk torna aka neli ki dja rangka.
[...]
[...]
tumpuk
pile
torna
rep
aka
det
neli
rice
ki
rel
dja
pfv
rangka.
tear.out
[…] pile up again the rice which has been cleaned.

Source: Maurer 2011: 98

Example 43-110:
Ake albër neli, ele tara ku tudu djenti [...].
Ake
dem
albër
plant
neli,
rice
ele
3sg
tara
plant
ku
with
tudu
all
djenti
people
[...].
[...]
This rice plant is planted by all [...].

Source: Maurer 2011: 100

Confidence:
Very certain