Datapoint Bahamian Creole/Complementizer with verbs of knowing

Say meaning 'that’ is described by Holm & Shilling (1982: 176) as "introducing subordinate clauses after verbs of perception, etc.; rare in Nassau“ (i.e., the Bahamian capital). That may even be rarer and appears to be restricted to more acrolectal speakers.

Values

No complementizer Frequency: 63.6%

Example 12-243:
I know da's something.
I
1sg.sbj
know
know
da's
dem.cop
something.
indf
I know that's something.
Example 12-244:
I believe they going to Canada or United States.
I
1sg.sbj
believe
believe
they
3pl.sbj
going
go.prog
to
to
Canada
Canada
or
or
United
United
States.
States
I think they're going to Canada or to the United States.
Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer identical to bare ‘say’ Frequency: 27.3%

Example 12-240:
These children today can’t believe say you could be twelve years old and be a monitress.
[...]
[...]
children
children
today
today
can’t
neg
believe
believe
say
comp
you
2sg.sbj
could
could
be
cop
twelve
twelve
year-s
year-pl
old
old
[...].
[...]
Children today can’t believe that one could be only twelve years old [but already work as an assistant teacher].

Source: Holm & Shilling 1982: 176

Example 12-241:
I remember say I done left light on.
I
1sg.sbj
remember
remember
say
comp
I
1sg.sbj
done
compl
left
leave.pfv
light
light
on.
on
I remember I left the light on.

Source: Holm & Shilling 1982: 176

Example 12-242:
I know say the bill only $4.00.
I
1sg.sbj
know
know
say
comp
the
art
bill
bill
only
only
$4.00.
$4.00
I know the bill is/was only four dollars.

Source: Holm & Shilling 1982: 176

Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer not synchronically related to ‘say’ Frequency: 9.1%

Example 12-239:
I think that one his arm is broken.
I
1sg.sbj
think
think
that
comp
one
one
his
3sg.m.poss
arm
arm[pl]
is
cop
broken.
break.ptcp
I think that one of his arms is broken.
Confidence:
Intermediate