Datapoint Nicaraguan Creole English/Transitive motion verbs: ‘push’

Under the influence of English, Nicaraguan Creole English appears to be acquiring a special motion-to preposition, iina, which is not used for at-rest meanings in this variety.

Values

At-rest marking is used to express motion-to Frequency: 70.0%

Example 11-254:
Shub it iin yor shuuz!
Shub
shove
it
3sg.n
iin
in
yor
2sg.poss
shuuz!
shoe
Shove it into your shoes!

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-255:
Yu luk wan papaya trii an push it iin di papaya trii ruut.
Yu
2sg
luk
look
wan
art.indf
papaya
papaya
trii
tree
an
and
push
push
it
3sg.n
iin
in
di
art.def
papaya
papaya
trii
tree
ruut.
root
Find a papaya tree and push it into the papaya tree’s root.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-256:
Somting mek a muuvment de iin di waata.
Som-ting
some-thing
mek
make
a
art.indf
muuvment
movement
de
dem.loc
iin
in
di
art.def
waata.
water
Something [just] made a movement in the water over there.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-257:
Lea shub Maria iin di huol.
Lea
Lea
shub
shove
Maria
Maria
iin
in
di
art.def
huol.
hole
Lea pushed Maria into the hole.
Example 11-259:
Deh neva yuustu hav haijaka iin di toun.
Deh
3pl
neva
neg.pst
yuustu
hab.pst
hav
have
haijaka
hijacker
iin
in
di
art.def
toun.
town
They did not have any hijackers in this town.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Confidence:
Very certain

Special motion-to preposition Frequency: 30.0%

Example 11-258:
Lea shub Maria iina di houl.
Lea
Lea
shub
shove
Maria
Maria
iina
in.to
di
art.def
houl.
hole
Lea pushed Maria into the hole.
Example 11-259:
Deh neva yuustu hav haijaka iin di toun.
Deh
3pl
neva
neg.pst
yuustu
hab.pst
hav
have
haijaka
hijacker
iin
in
di
art.def
toun.
town
They did not have any hijackers in this town.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Confidence:
Very certain