Datapoint Nicaraguan Creole English/Present reference of stative verbs and past perfective reference of dynamic verbs

Holm (1978: 251) cautions that “the corresponding English tense for an unmarked MCC [Nicaraguan Creole English] verb can only be determined from the context” although he admits (ibid.) that statistically, unmarked non-stative verbs tend to correspond to the English past, unmarked statives to the English present tense.


It seems to me that Nicaraguan Creole English is moving in a direction where 1) PST and not ANT is being marked, 2) that PST is marked much more frequently than ANT is in San Andres Creole English, and 3) that this marking occurs less and less by means of preverbal markers and more and more by means of inflected verbs.

Values

Stative verbs with present reference and dynamic verbs with past perfective reference are both unmarked

Example 11-148:
Wen dei chek di ship ih woz a ship lood av pomkin.
Wen
when
dei
3pl
chek
check
di
art.def
ship
ship
ih
3sg
woz
cop.pst
a
art.indf
ship
ship
lood
load
av
of
pomkin.
pumpkin
When they checked the ship, it was/carried a ship load of pumpkins.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-149:
Shi ded wen shi did hav 35 yierz.
Shi
3sg.f
ded
die
wen
when
shi
3sg.f
did
pst
hav
have
35
35
yier-z.
year-pl
She died when she was 35 years old.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-150:
Den ai ritorn bak huom.
Den
then
ai
1sg
ritorn
return
bak
back
huom.
home
Then I returned home.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-151:
Ai laik suga.
Ai
1sg
laik
like
suga.
sugar
I like sugar.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-152:
Hi went out.
Hi
3sg.m
went
go.pst
out.
out
He went out.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-153:
Ai du aal kainda work.
Ai
1sg
du
do
aal
all
kaind-a
kind-of
work.
work
I do all kinds of work.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-154:
Wan taim wa rat mi fain wa big piis a kiek.
Wan
one
taim
time
wa
art.indf
rat
rat
mi
pst
fain
find
wa
art.indf
big
big
piis
piece
a
of
kiek.
cake
Once a rat found a big piece of cake.
Example 11-155:
Shi tink se iz shi.
Shi
3sg.f
tink
think
se
comp
iz
cop.prs
shi.
3sg.f
She thought it was her.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Confidence:
Very certain