Datapoint Nicaraguan Creole English/Internal order of tense, aspect, and mood markers

It appears that Nicaraguan Creole English does not permit the co-occurrence of three preverbal TAM-markers. In the present-day variety, the postverbal progressive marker -in (derived from the English present participle ending) is much more frequent than preverbal de. As for the past/anterior, more and more English past tense forms occur. Holm (1978: 251–254) indicates that mi and di(d) are allomorphs and does not make any further comments on their distribution. On the basis of recent data, it seems clear that mi is more basilectal than di(d). In combination with the past/anterior marker mi, the progressive marker may become di, probably as a result of vowel harmony.

Values

The feature does not apply

Example 11-119:
Iin a tach hous di sik uman di don instaal [...].
Iin
in
a
art.indf
tach
thatched
hous
house
di
art.def
sik
sick
uman
woman
di
pst
don
compl
instaal
install
[...].
[...]
The sick woman had already been installed in a house with a palm-thatched roof [...].
Example 11-120:
Di dakta seh ih di tu liet, di rat di gwain ded.
Di
art.def
dakta
doctor
seh
say
ih
3sg.n
di
pst
tu
too
liet,
late
di
art.def
rat
rat
di
pst
gwain
fut
ded.
die
The doctor said it was too late, the rat was going to die.
Example 11-121:
Ih mi di iit di graas.
Ih
3sg
mi
pst
di
prog
iit
eat
di
art.def
graas.
grass
He ate the grass.
Example 11-122:
yu mi dringkin
yu
2sg
mi
ant
dringk-in
drink-prog
You were drinking/have been drinking.

Source: Holm 1978: 259

Example 11-123:
If dis ting woz wel regyulietid, di tiicha dem wud stap rait hier.
If
if
dis
dem
ting
thing
woz
cop.pst
wel
well
regyulietid,
regulated
di
art.def
tiicha
teacher
dem
pl
wud
would
stap
stop
rait
right
hier.
here
If this thing was well regulated, the teachers would stop it right here.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-124:
If enibadi di waa kil sombadi deh hiet aar fa enitin els.
If
if
enibadi
anybody
di
pst
waa
fut
kil
kill
sombadi
somebody
deh
3pl
hiet
heat
aar
3sg.f.obj
fa
for
enitin
anything
els.
else
If anyone wanted to kill someone they made her angry for any reason whatsoever.
Example 11-125:
Iin a kwayet vois shi aks ar ded piipl if shi don du inof, if shi du it gud an if deh niid enitin els fa shi kud stie wid dem weh livin.
Iin
in
a
art.indf
kwayet
quiet
vois
voice
shi
3sg.sbj.f
aks
ask
ar
3sg.poss.f
ded
dead
piipl
people
if
if
shi
3sg.sbj.f
don
compl
du
do
inof,
enough
if
if
shi
3sg.sbj.f
du
do
it
3sg.obj.n
gud
good
an
and
if
if
deh
3pl.sbj
niid
need
enitin
anything
els
else
fa
for
shi
3sg.sbj.f
kud
could
stie
stay
wid
with
dem
3pl.obj
weh
rel
liv-in.
live-prog
Quietly she asked her dead family members if she had done enough for them, whether she had done it well and whether they needed anything else so that she could stay with those who were living.
Example 11-126:
Ai di stodin hier iin Bluufiilz.
Ai
1sg
di
pst
stod-in
study-prog
hier
here
iin
in
Bluufiilz.
Bluefields
I was studying here in Bluefields.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Confidence:
Certain