Datapoint Early Sranan/Nominal and verbal conjunction

The verbal conjunctor en is different from the nominal conjunctor nanga; en also functions as nominal conjunctor in some sources (see Feature 71 "Noun phrase conjunction and comitative"). While Schumann (1783) notes that en is Bakratongo, it occurs more generally in verbal than in nominal conjunction in sources by other authors. The alternative kaba appears as verbal conjunctor or sentence-initial connective ('and, but'); it does not function as nominal conjunctor.

Values

Identity and differentiation

Example 1-173:
Joe buy gi wini en takki homan potti taffele.
Yu
2sg
boi
boy
gi
give
wini
wine
èn
and
taki
say
uma
woman
poti
put
tafra.
table
You boy, serve some wine and tell the women to set the table.
Dutch: Jongen geef Wyn en zeg de Meiden datze de Tafel dekken. [op.cit.]

Source: van Dyk ca. 1765: 102

Example 1-171:
Teh hem tatta en mamma si hem, dem tronnfuru.
Te
when
en
3sg
tata
father
èn
and
mama
mother
si
see
en,
3sg
den
3pl
tronfuru.
be.astonished
When his father and mother saw him, they were astonished.

Source: Schumann 1781: 25

Example 1-170:
Em tata nanga em mama dedee.
En
3sg
tata
father
nanga
with/and
en
3sg
mama
mother
dede.
be(come).dead
His father and his mother are dead.
Dutch: Zyn ouders zyn dood. [op.cit.]

Source: Weygandt 1798: 88

Example 1-174:
Mi tatta de worko teh tideh, kaba mi de worko tu.
Mi
1sg
tata
father
de
asp
wroko
work
te
until
tide,
today
kaba
and
mi
1sg
de
asp
wroko
work
tu.
too
My father is working until today and I keep working too.

Source: Schumann 1781: 48

Confidence:
Certain