72 Nominal and verbal conjunction

This feature is described more fully in chapter 72.


In this feature (based on WALS feature 64, by Martin Haspelmath), we ask whether nominal conjunction ('Pat and Kim') and verbal (or clausal) conjunction ('The kids are playing and the parents are talking') are expressed in the same way or differently. While European languages generally have the same conjunction marker for both functions, African languages typically use different markers for these two situations. Overlap means that one marker has both functions and another marker has just one of the functions. If a language has three markers, two can differentiate and the third can lump the two functions, so that there is overlap and differentiation.


Martin Haspelmath and the APiCS Consortium


Identity, overtly expressed37
Identity, expressed by juxtaposition1
Identity and differentiation4

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details