15 Inclusive/exclusive distinction in independent personal pronouns

This feature is described more fully in chapter 15.


In this feature (based on WALS feature 39, by Michael Cysouw), we ask whether a language has an inclusive/exclusive distinction in independent personal pronouns. An inclusive pronouns means 'we including the hearer', and an exclusive pronoun means 'we excluding the hearer'.


Martin Haspelmath, Susanne Maria Michaelis and the APiCS Consortium


No inclusive/exclusive distinction67
Inclusive and exclusive differentiated9

Language Value Lexifier Details Source
Id Primary text Analyzed text Gloss Translation Type Language Audio Details