Structure dataset 6: Trinidad English Creole

This language is described more fully in survey chapter 6.

Trinidad English Creole is used by approximately 1,000,000 of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago’s ca. 1,300,000 inhabitants (2011) as well as by members of diaspora communities in Britain, Canada, and the United States. It is the de facto language of national identity in Trinidad and is used in functional distribution with the official language English. Trinidad English Creole serves as means of informal communication across all ethnic and socio-economic groups. Its functional domain restrictions have decreased in the last decades: in 1975, the Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Education recognized Trinidad English Creole as a legitimate vehicle for oral and written expression in schools and educators were encouraged to use teaching strategies based on the differences between Trinidad English Creole and standard English. Trinidad English Creole use can also be found increasingly in the media (radio, television). Some formerly stigmatized features of Trinidad English Creole have now become accepted acrolectal use. There is no basilectal variety of Trinidad English Creole. The most conservative speakers can be found in the rural Indo-Trinidadian population. The mesolectal/acrolectal variety is the default lect documented in APiCS. Constructed examples were taken from the following sources: a) several UWI students (male and female) in their early twenties, b) a female middle-aged native speaker of Trinidad English Creole. Written examples were taken from either literary sources or from a Web-corpus of Trinidad English Creole.

Glossed text (46.5KB, application/pdf)
No. Feature Value Details Source
No. Feature Value Details Source


Pulmonic Consonants
Place → Labial Coronal Dorsal Laryngeal
↓ Manner Bilabial Labio­dental Linguo­labial Dental Alveolar Palato-
Retroflex Alveolo-
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
/ Epiglottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p  b t  d  k   g
Sibilant affricate t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ
Non-sibilant affricate
Sibilant fricative s z ʃ ʒ
Non-sibilant fricative f v h
Approximant l j
Flap or tap
Trill r
Lateral affricate
Lateral fricative
Lateral approximant
Lateral flap


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back Close Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open ihigh front unrounded vowel long high front unrounded vowel uhigh back rounded vowel long high back rounded vowel ɪlowered high front unrounded vowel ʊlowered high back rounded vowel ehigher mid front unrounded vowel long higher mid front unrounded vowel ohigher mid back rounded vowel long higher mid back rounded vowel əmid central unrounded vowel ɛlower mid front unrounded vowel ɛːlong lower mid front unrounded vowel ɔlower mid back rounded vowel ɔːlong lower mid back rounded vowel alow central unrounded vowel long low central unrounded vowel ɑlow back unrounded vowel ɑːlong low back unrounded vowel

Special segments

Other segments
 w  voiced labial-velar glide


       Exists (as a major allophone)
       Exists only as a minor allophone
       Exists only in loanwords
No. Feature Value Details Source