Cavite Chabacano

Cavite Chabacano is spoken in Cavite City, 35 kilometers southwest from Manila in the Philippines. It is one of the Spanish contact varieties that are spoken in the Philippines and known collectively as Chabacano. Cavite Chabacano is severely endangered, with less than 4,000 speakers in a city of 100,000. There are also some speakers in the United States and other migrant worker destinations. All speakers of Cavite Chabacano are bilingual in Chabacano and Tagalog and most are also fluent in English. The functional domains of Cavite Chabacano are highly restricted. It is mainly used at home and the majority of fluent speakers are of the grandparental generation or older. English and Filipino (based on Tagalog) are the national languages and are used in Cavite in the educational system, the media and in local communication. Spanish is no longer commonly spoken in Cavite City. Cavite City residents generally have a positive attitude toward Chabacano and there is no stigma associated with those who speak it, but socioeconomic conditions make learning English and Tagalog more favorable. Speakers of all socioeconomic backgrounds can still be found in different areas of the city, especially in the San Roque and Caridad districts. The default lect described in the database is almost entirely written Cavite Chabacano produced by language activists engaged in the promotion of the language. The examples are from literary sources and written elicitation collected between 2006-2010 in Cavite City. The study of sociolectal variation for Cavite Chabacano is ongoing and notes on variation are not included in the APiCS description.

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No. Feature Value % Details Source
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Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source