Nengee

The different varieties of Nengee (Aluku, Ndyuka and Pamaka) emerged during the 18th century as the result of maroonage. Although they ultimately have their origin in the contact varieties that emerged on the plantation of Suriname, they developed into distinct varieties, having undergone separate development after their founders’ settlement in the interior of the Surinamese/French Guianese rainforst. There has always been some contact between Maroons and the coastal population through Maroon men’s commercial activities and seasonal cash labor. However, contact has gradually intensified since the 1950s with Maroons’ greater integration into Surinamese and recently also French Guianese society due to both migration and, to a much lesser extent, social change in the village setting. Today, both many Maroon men and women live in or regularly spend time in urban contexts and are in contact with members of other Maroon communities and non-Maroons. In this new context, code alternation practices involving the regional lingua franca Sranan (also Sranantongo), but also other languages such as Dutch and to a lesser extent French and English have become quite frequent in both out-group and in-group speech among younger people and new social varieties (e.g. wakaman/yunkuman tongo) have emerged besides other existing ones such as respect speech (cf. Migge 2004). In addition, non-Maroons in French Guiana have been acquiring these newly emerging multilingual practices often referred to as Takitaki locally (Cf. Migge & van den Berg 2009; Migge & Léglise 2011, 2013; Léglise & Migge 2007). The description of linguistics features in APiCS (default lect) are predominantly based on typical monolingual everyday speech that is associated with the village context (Huttar & Huttar 1994; Goury & Migge 2003; and other articles by these authors). However, where necessary reference is made to other varieties such as respect speech and contemporary speech associated with the urban context. The speech samples/texts provided are also representative of conservative village practices. Modern urban-associated practices are documented in Migge 2005a, 2005b, 2007, 2011, and in Migge & Léglise 2013.

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No. Feature Value % Details Source
No. Feature Value % Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

labialized voiceless velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
mbprenasalized voiced bilabial plosive - Exists only as a minor allophone

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % Details Source