The different varieties of Nengee (Aluku, Ndyuka and Pamaka) emerged during the 18th century as the result of maroonage. Although they ultimately have their origin in the contact varieties that emerged on the plantation of Suriname, they developed into distinct varieties, having undergone separate development after their founders’ settlement in the interior of the Surinamese/French Guianese rainforst. There has always been some contact between Maroons and the coastal population through Maroon men’s commercial activities and seasonal cash labor. However, contact has gradually intensified since the 1950s with Maroons’ greater integration into Surinamese and recently also French Guianese society due to both migration and, to a much lesser extent, social change in the village setting. Today, both many Maroon men and women live in or regularly spend time in urban contexts and are in contact with members of other Maroon communities and non-Maroons. In this new context, code alternation practices involving the regional lingua franca Sranan (also Sranantongo), but also other languages such as Dutch and to a lesser extent French and English have become quite frequent in both out-group and in-group speech among younger people and new social varieties (e.g. wakaman/yunkuman tongo) have emerged besides other existing ones such as respect speech (cf. Migge 2004). In addition, non-Maroons in French Guiana have been acquiring these newly emerging multilingual practices often referred to as Takitaki locally (Cf. Migge & van den Berg 2009; Migge & Léglise 2011, 2013; Léglise & Migge 2007). The description of linguistics features in APiCS (default lect) are predominantly based on typical monolingual everyday speech that is associated with the village context (Huttar & Huttar 1994; Goury & Migge 2003; and other articles by these authors). However, where necessary reference is made to other varieties such as respect speech and contemporary speech associated with the urban context. The speech samples/texts provided are also representative of conservative village practices. Modern urban-associated practices are documented in Migge 2005a, 2005b, 2007, 2011, and in Migge & Léglise 2013.
|trill, tap or flap||r||ɾ|
|kʷ||labialized voiceless velar plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)|
|mb||prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive - Exists only as a minor allophone|
|Exists (as a major allophone)|
|Exists only as a minor allophone|
|Exists only in loanwords|
|Does not exist|