Cape Verdean Creole of Santiago

Cape Verdean Creole is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken by about one million people in and outside the archipelago of Cape Verde, which since 1975 has been independent from Portugal, and since 1981 separated from Guinea-Bissau. About half of the Cape Verdeans speak the Santiago variety, some 250 000 on Santiago island and another 250 000 Cape Verdean emigrants in different countries bordering on the Atlantic Ocean (mainly in the Boston region of the United States and in Lisbon, but also in Brazil, Angola, Senegal etc.). Not all diaspora members have a complete command of the language. On Santiago, everybody speaks Santiago Creole in daily life except for some immigrants from the other islands who have moved to the capital Praia for professional reasons. Nevertheless, Portuguese is still the only official language and the only one used in teaching. The default lect that we chose for description in APiCS is a variety equally well accepted in the capital and in the rural regions of the interior. In the interior (concelho de Santa Catarina) it competes with more conservative varieties, in which a women may still be addressed as nhára (< Portuguese senhora) instead of nha etc. In town it competes with varieties and registers more or less influenced by Portuguese, in the dataset indicated as acrolect (close to Portuguese), which has adjectives varying according to sex (minina bunita 'pretty girl' instead of minina bunitu) or even according to the gender of Portuguese nouns, etc.

Glossed text (50.1KB, application/pdf)
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source

Consonants

bilabial
labiodental
dental
dental/alveolar
dental/alveolar
affricate
palato-alveolar
retroflex
palatal
velar
labial-velar
uvular
glottal
plosive/affricatepbtdt͡sd͡zt͡ʃd͡ʒʈɖcɟkgk͡pg͡bqʔ
aspirated plosive/affricatet͡sʰt͡ʃʰ
glottalized stop/affricateɓt͡sʼt͡ʃʼ
nasalmnɳɲŋ
trill, tap or flaprɾ
fricativeɸβfvθðszʃʒxɣχh
lateral/approximantɬlɭjw

Vowels

frontnear-frontcentralnear-backback
high
higher-mid
mid
lower-mid
low

Special segments

mbprenasalized voiced bilabial plosive - Exists (as a major allophone)
ʎvoiced palatal lateral approximant - Exists only as a minor allophone

Legend

 Exists (as a major allophone)
 Exists only as a minor allophone
 Exists only in loanwords
 Does not exist
No. Feature Value % lect Details Source