Datapoint Gurindji Kriol/Predicative noun phrases and predicative locative phrases

Nominal and locational predication overlap in their encoding. Both constructions have copula-less forms, i.e. they have forms which do not require either a resumptive pronoun or a copula verb top (< stop). In both constructions, the use of the resumptive pronoun is also optional. However, the copula verb may be used in locational predication, which is the point of difference between the constructions.

Values

Overlap

Example 72-118:
Nyila bebi im top teblta kanyjupal.
Nyila
that
bebi
baby
im
3sg
top
be
tebl-ta
table-loc
kanyjupal.
underneath
The baby is under the table.

Source: Gurindji Kriol database 2003-2006

Example 72-119:
An dat warlaku tebulta kanyjurra.
An
and
dat
the
warlaku
dog
tebul-ta
table-loc
kanyjurra.
down
And the dog is down under the table.

Source: Meakins 2007: 241

Example 72-111:
Ankaj dat karu im yapakayiwan.
Ankaj
poor.thing
dat
the
karu
child
im
3sg
yapakayi-wan.
small-nmlz
Poor kid, he's only little.

Source: Meakins 2007: 424

Example 72-81:
Nyawa ngakparn im top andanith flawawalijangka.
Nyawa
this
ngakparn
frog
im
3sg
top
be
andanith
underneath
flawa-walija-ngka.
flower-pauc-loc
This frog is underneath the flowers.

Source: DOBES database 2007-2008

Confidence:
Very certain