Datapoint Gurindji Kriol/Tense-aspect systems

Gurindji Kriol has a mostly temporal system which is derived from Kriol. The only tense auxiliary is bin (PST). Future time is expressed by the potential mood auxiliary garra. Present time is not overtly expressed. Time auxiliaries precede the verb as either free morphemes or clitics attached to subject pronouns.

Aspect marking in the form of the continuative -karra, -batkarra (TR) or in (INTR) is found suffixed to the verb.

Values

Mixed aspectual-temporal system

Example 72-77:
Dat boingku i bin maindimbatkarra nyanuny kapuku.
Dat
the
boi-ngku
boy-erg
i
3sg.sbj
bin
pst
maind-im-bat-karra
mind-tr-cont-cont
nyanuny
3sg.dat
kapuku.
sister
The boy was looking after his sister.

Source: Gurindji Kriol database 2003-2006

Example 72-22:
Dat geltu im tokin bo nyanuny kapuku wartanta.
Dat
the
gel-tu
girl-erg
im
3sg
tok-in
talk-cont
bo
prep
nyanuny
3sg.dat
kapuku
sister
wartan-ta.
hand-loc
The girl (she) is talking to her sister, behind her hand.

Source: Gurindji Kriol database 2003-2006

Example 72-56:
Nyawa ngumpittu im katimbat kengkaru.
Nyawa
this
ngumpit-tu
man-erg
im
3sg
kat-im-bat
cut-tr-cont
kengkaru.
kangaroo
This man is cutting up the kangaroo.

Source: Gurindji Kriol database 2003-2006

Confidence:
Intermediate