Datapoint Gurindji Kriol/Contact with other languages

Gurindji Kriol is a symbiotic mixed language, that is it continues to be spoken alongside its source languages, Gurindji and Kriol. Older Gurindji people continue to speak Gurindji albeit often mixed with Kriol in code-switching. The biggest influence probably comes from Kriol. Kriol is the 'lingua franca' of Aboriginal people across northern Australia. It has replaced many traditional languages as home languages. Gurindji people speak Kriol when they go to local service towns such as Katherine. Influence from Kriol can be seen across generations with teenage speakers of Gurindji Kriol using more Kriol vocabulary than older speakers. Grammatical influence is also apparent with Kriol prepositions beginning to be used instead of Gurindji case marking. Another neighbouring indigenous language, Warlpiri, also has some influence on Gurindji Kriol; however, this influence is marginal. Only some Warlpiri words have been borrowed into Gurindji Kriol.


Several different kinds of languages are equally important in terms of contact influence

Very certain