Datapoint Gurindji Kriol/Increasing use

Gurindji Kriol is now spoken in other northern Aboriginal communities whose traditional languages are Bilinarra and Ngarinyman. These languages are closely related to Gurindji. It is not clear whether Gurindji Kriol spread to these communities from Kalkaringi or whether independent mixed languages developed in these communities. Given that Gurindji, Bilinarra and Ngarinyman are mutually intelligible Ngumpin languages, and travel between the Aboriginal communities where they are spoken occurs frequently, it is likely that the mixed languages developed at similar times and in similar ways with some local language flavour.