The glottal stop /ʔ/ replaces the orthographic <k> when it occurs word-finally or before the syllable boundary in the Standard Malay writing system, e.g. balik [ba.leʔ] 'return', duduk [du.duʔ] 'sit', tak [taʔ] 'not'. In this case, /ʔ/ is considered an allophone of the velar stop as they are in complementary distribution, that is, while the former occurs in the positions mentioned above, the latter does not.
The glottal stop in non-word-final positions is observed in loanwords. As noted by Mintz (1994: 11), the glottal stop in Bazaar Malay may also occur between two identical vowels as in Malay. In this case, however, it is not represented at all in the
writing system: saat [saʔ.aʔ] 'time/moment', maaf [maʔ.aʔ] 'forgive'.