Datapoint Juba Arabic/Complementizer with verbs of knowing

Values

No complementizer Frequency: 75.0%

Example 64-195:
úo árifu fi móya fi mahál al gowanyát gekóre
úo
3sg
árifu
know
fi
exist
móya
water
fi
in
mahál
place
al
rel
gowany-át
frog-pl
ge=kóre
prog=cry
He knew that there was water at the place where the frogs were croaking.

Source: Watson & Ola 1984: 119

Example 64-196:
anína biágder árif hája de batál wa hája dak kwes
anína
1pl
bi=ágder
irr=can
árif
know
hája
thing
de
dem.prox
batál
bad
wa
and
hája
thing
dak
dem.dist
kwes
good
We can know that this is bad and that is good.
Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer identical to bare ‘say’ Frequency: 20.0%

Example 64-194:
biníya de ma biárufu gále jamá de gekabasu úo
biníya
girl
de
dem.prox
ma
neg
bi=árufu
irr=know
gále
say
jamá
group
de
dem.prox
ge=kabasu
prog=betray
úo
3sg
The girl doesn’t know that they betray her.

Source: Miller 2001: 470

Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer not synchronically related to ‘say’ Frequency: 5.0%

Example 64-193:
fi nas bifékir ínu ma kwes rája be ída áʃara
fi
exist
nas
people
bi=fékir
irr=think
ínu
comp
ma
neg
kwes
good
rája
come.back
be
with
ída
hand
áʃara
ten
There are people who think that it’s not good to come back empty-handed.

Source: Manfredi 2005: 193

Confidence:
Very certain