Datapoint Lingala/Comitatives and instrumentals

Rarely, instrument is expressed, not by means of the comitative, but by means of an applicative construction. This only occurs when there is no risk of ambiguity, i.e. when the complement cannot be interpreted as beneficiary.

A:O-zw-í mbelí pó na níni?
[2SG-fetch-PRS.PRF knife for to what]
'Why have you taken the knife?'

B:Na-kát-él-í yangó nyama
[1SG-cut-APPL-PRS.PRF 3SG.INAN meat]
'I’ve used it to cut the meat'

Mbelí óyo na-kát-él-í lípa, e-zal-í mo-néne
[knife REL 1SG-cut-APPL-PRS.PRF bread, 3SG.INAN-be-PRS.PRF SG-big]
'The knife with which I’ve cut the bread, is big'

Values

Identity

Example 60-98:
akendákí na Marie
a-kend-ákí
3sg-go-pst
na
with
Marie
Marie
He went with Marie.
Example 60-97:
nakátákí lípa na mbelí
na-kát-ákí
1sg-cut-pst
lípa
bread
na
with
mbelí
knife
I cut the bread with a knife.
Confidence:
Certain