Datapoint Lingala/Present reference of stative verbs and past perfective reference of dynamic verbs

As explained and exemplified in the survey article, there is an unmarked verb form. This form indicates unconditional future, both for stative and for dynamic verbs.

As explained in Meeuwis (1998: 28) and more fully in Brisard & Meeuwis (2009), -í can be used on both stative and dynamic verbs (a distinction to be made on language-specific criteria). On a stative verb it denotes a present state or marks structural, general-validity statements. On a dynamic verb it denotes perfect: the action is carried out in the past and has led to a resulting situation in the present. Important to note is that, in the case of dynamic verbs, the past action is backgrounded and the present situation foregrounded, not the other way around (see Brisard & Meeuwis 2009). Therefore, what -í shares on stative and dynamic verbs, is a notion of the presentness. In order to have one gloss for the same marker throughout, I have chosen always to always gloss -í as PRS.PRF.


Stative verbs with present reference and dynamic verbs with past perfective reference are marked with the same overt marker

Example 60-72:
I have given.

Source: nd

Example 60-73:
I am.

Source: nd

Very certain