Datapoint Lingala/Position of tense, aspect, and mood markers in relation to the verb

Only the future marker -ko- is preradical; all other TAM markers are postradical. Apart from future -ko-, another preradical TA marker is -zô-, marking Present Progressive, but this is the contracted variant of a periphrastic form.

Nazalí kolámba sósó
Na-zal-í ko-lámb-a sósó
1SG-be-PRS.PRF INF-cook-FV chicken
'I am preparing chicken'
=
Nazôlámba sósó
Na-zô-lámb-a sósó
1SG-PRS.PROG-cook-FV chicken
'I’m preparing chicken'

Values

Immediately following the verb Frequency: 70.0%

Example 60-58:
atángákí
a-táng-ákí
3sg-study-pst
He studied.

Source: Recordings of naturalistic discourse

Confidence:
Very certain

Immediately preceding the verb Frequency: 30.0%

Example 60-59:
akotánga
a-ko-táng-a
3sg-fut-study-fv
He will study.

Source: Recordings of naturalistic discourse

Confidence:
Very certain