Datapoint Lingala/Tone

Compound tones also occur: A falling tone is a combination of a high and a low toneme; a rising tone is a combination of a low and a high toneme. Compound tones are always analyzable, either synchronically or diachronically, and never contrast with single tones in lexical or grammatical semantics.

Values

Simple tone system, for lexical and grammatical distinctions

Example 60-172:
(1) ngambo (2) ngámbo
(1)
(1)
ngambo
difficulty
(2)
(2)
ngámbo
opposite.side.of.river/street/etc.
(1) difficulty (2) opposite side of river, street, etc.

Source: Recordings of naturalistic discourse

Example 60-174:
(1) moto (2) motó
(1)
(1)
moto
person
(2)
(2)
motó
head
(1) person (2) head

Source: Meeuwis 1998: 9

Example 60-175:
(1) sango (2) sángó
(1)
(1)
sango
news
(2)
(2)
sángó
priest
(1) news (2) priest

Source: Meeuwis 1998: 9

Example 60-173:
(1) nália (2) naliá
(1)
(1)
ná-li-a
1sg.sbjv-eat-fv
(2)
(2)
na-li-á
1sg-eat-prs.prf
(1) that I eat (2) I have eaten (long ago)
Confidence:
Very certain