Datapoint Sango/Predicative noun phrases

The absence of the copula is undoubtedly a vestige of Ngbandi, the source and adjunct language (because the way they speak Sango influences the way others do), which does not have a copula. On the origin of yeke see Samarin (1986).

Values

Variable copula

Example 59-218:
kol ti lo ae zo ti fango zo
koli
husband
ti
of
lo
3sg
a-ke
pm-cop
zo
person
ti
of
fa-ngo
kill-nmlz
zo
person
Her husband was a person who killed people.
Example 59-219:
ni ke deku tito lo mu ni lo hunzi ni na ya ti tuku?!
ni
1sg.log
ke
cop
deku
mouse
titene
so.that
lo
3sg
mu
take
ni
1sg.log
lo
3sg
hunzi
hide
ni
1sg.log
na
prep
ya
inside
ti
of
tuku?!
steel.drum
(She said), Am I a mouse that you should take and hide me in a barrel? (Translated as direct speech.)
Example 59-221:
koli so ka (ake) baba ti mbi
koli
man
so
dem
ka
over.there
(a-ke)
(pm-cop)
baba
father
ti
of
mbi
1sg
That man over there is my father.
Example 59-220:
So taa tene, wala vene?
So
dem
taa
true
tene,
word
wala
or
vene?
lie
Is that the truth or a lie?
Confidence:
Very certain