Datapoint Sango/Uses of the habitual marker

I have noticed the occasional use of a postverbal morpheme ka (with low tone) in my recordings of the 1990s. Some speakers use both COP and ka. (I do not have enough data to make generalizations —linguistic and sociolinguistic —about its occurrence.) The earliest examples come from vinyl recordings of dance music (probably the 1970s). Perhaps ka has been adopted from Lingala or Kituba, because a lot of this music was created, it seems, by musicians in Brazzaville.

Values

Habitual, progressive and future Frequency: 90.0%

Example 59-150:
mbi ke leke tere ti mbi ti kiri
mbi
1sg
ke
cop
leke
fix
tere
body
ti
of
mbi
1sg
ti
to
kiri
return
I'll prepare myself to return.

Source: Samarin 2001a: 136

Example 59-146:
mo yeke te nyama ti nyen'?
mo
2sg
yeke
cop
te
eat
nyama
meat
ti
of
nyen'?
what
What kind of meat do you (habitually) eat?
Example 59-147:
lo tene mama ti lo ake kiri lawa
lo
3sg
tene
say
mama
mother
ti
of
lo
3sg
a-ke
pm-cop
kiri
return
lawa
when
He asked when her mother was returning.
Example 59-51:
nyen' aso mo si mo eke toto tongaso?
nyen'
what
aso
sm.hurt
mo
2sg
si
then
mo
2sg
eke
cop
toto
cry
tongaso?
thus
What ails you that you're crying like this?
Confidence:
Very certain

Only habitual function Frequency: 10.0%

Example 59-152:
tongana lo mu samba na ala, ala ken', ala tene, baa ala nyon'ka samba pepe
tongana
when
lo
3sg
mu
give
samba
beer
na
prep
ala,
2pl
ala
2pl
ken',
refuse
ala
2pl
tene,
say
baa
see
ala
2pl
nyon'-ka
drink-hab
samba
beer
pepe
neg
When he offers you beer, refuse, say, "Look, I don't drink beer."
Example 59-153:
[...], mo teen', baa, mo nyon' samba ape o
[...],
[...]
mo
2sg
tene,
say
baa,
see
mo
2sg
nyon'
drink
samba
beer
ape
neg
o
def
(When he offers you beer), say, "Look, I don't drink beer, thank you."
Confidence:
Very certain