Datapoint Palenquero/Predicative noun phrases and predicative locative phrases

The situation seems complex and far from clear in Palenquero. In terms of frequency and "general behaviour", Palenquero does seem to behave like Spanish (which differentiates between estar and ser (Spanish ser (nominal copula) vs. estar (locative copula)).

But this similarity in behaviour may be a relatively recent phenomenon, as there are also plenty of cases where the differentiation does not obtain. For instance, both expressions can be heard:

Ele é akí.
Ele ta akí
.
'He/she is here.'

Clearly, the feature in question deserves closer study.

**Note: it is true, however, that in Palenquero, ta never goes with nominals, that is
*Ele ta mujé 'she is a woman' is ungrammatical.

Values

Overlap

Example 48-12:
É un kusa muy impottante.
É
be
un
art.indf.sg
kusa
thing
muy
very
impottante.
important
It is a very important thing/matter.
Spanish: Es una cosa muy importante.

Source: Schwegler & Green 2007: 292,note 20

Example 48-19:
¡Ele e un muhé!
¡Ele
3sg
e
be
un
art.indf.sg
muhé!
woman
She is a woman (rather than a man)!
Spanish: ¡Ella es una mujer!
Example 48-135:
Ele e músiko.
Ele
He/she
e
be
músiko.
musician
He/she is a musician.
Spanish: (Él/ella) es músico.
Example 48-136:
I tan sendá dotó.
I
I
tan
fut
sendá
be
dotó.
doctor
I will be a doctor.
Spanish: (Yo) seré doctor/médico.

Source: de Friedemann & Patiño Rosselli 1983: 131

Example 48-140:
Mahaná a-ta aí loyo.
Mahaná
kids
a-ta
?-be
there
loyo.
creek
The kids are by/in/at the creek.
Spanish: Los chicos están donde el arroyo.
Example 48-141:
Rosalío ta lendro monte.
Rosalío
Rosalío
ta
be
lendro
in
monte.
field
Rosalío is in the field (working).
Spanish: Rosalío está en el monte.
Confidence:
Intermediate