Datapoint Palenquero/Predicative noun phrases

Palenquero uses several copula, including:

e < Spanish es
ta < Spanish estar
sendá (etym. ?)
fue < Spanish fue
era
< Spanish era

Note that fue can be used for both present and past (strange as this may be, from a Spanish perspective, where fue is always past).

It remains to be studied what "really" triggers speakers to use one over the other of these copulas.

Values

Invariant copula

Example 48-135:
Ele e músiko.
Ele
He/she
e
be
músiko.
musician
He/she is a musician.
Spanish: (Él/ella) es músico.
Example 48-136:
I tan sendá dotó.
I
I
tan
fut
sendá
be
dotó.
doctor
I will be a doctor.
Spanish: (Yo) seré doctor/médico.

Source: de Friedemann & Patiño Rosselli 1983: 131

Confidence:
Very certain