Datapoint Papiamentu/Present reference of stative verbs and past perfective reference of dynamic verbs

Overt tense/aspect marking is essentially obligatory in auxiliary-less main clauses. Unmarked occurrences are acceptable only for a subset of the class of stative verbs, namely those which do not admit combination with preverbal ta (see Feature 46 "Tightness of link between progressive marker and verb"). There are no verbs which fail to combine with the other preverbal modifiers. Thus we can distinguish three sets of verbs:
a. stative verbs which do not combine with ta, e.g., konosé 'know, be acquainted with', sabi ~ sa 'know', ke (Curacao) and kjèr (Aruba) (both: 'want');
b. stative verbs which are optionally modified by ta, e.g., stima 'love', kosta 'cost';
c. all other stative and non-stative verbs, e.g., deseá 'want, wish', ke 'believe', kanta 'sing'.
The interpretation of the verb preceded by ta is not affected by stativity. Whether the verb is stative or dynamic, the presence of ta in out-of-the-blue utterances triggers a present tense interpretation.

Values

Stative verbs with present reference and dynamic verbs with past perfective reference are marked differently

Example 47-91:
Nos (ta) falta sinkuenta sèn.
Nos
1pl
(ta)
(tns)
falta
lack
sinkuenta
fifty
sèn.
cent
We are fifty cents short.

Source: Muller 1989b: 323

Example 47-103:
Awor mi tin un lista basta largo.
Awor
now
mi
1sg
tin
have
un
indf
lista
list
basta
sufficiently
largo.
long
Now I have quite a long list.

Source: Papiamentu database

Example 47-1:
Awe mainta mi a bai subi Hooiberg.
Awe
today
mainta
morning
mi
1sg
a
pfv
bai
go
subi
climb
Hooiberg.
Hooiberg
This morning I climbed Hooiberg.

Source: Kouwenberg & Murray 1994: 46

Confidence:
Very certain