Dutch remains the primary language of education. It is not surprising, then, that Dutch has been a major influence on the Papiamentu lexicon; it has also contributed to the phoneme inventory (most notably, the front rounded vowels), and it has had an impact in the morphology and syntax of Papiamentu.
Additionally, English, Spanish, Haitian, and English-based creole varieties all have a presence in the islands. The high prestige of English and Spanish and a politically-motivated desire to counteract Dutch influence have contributed to large numbers of lexical contributions from both English and Spanish. Some of the variation documented in Andersen (1974) pertains specifically to Spanish influence.