Datapoint Papiamentu/Functions of reduplication

Dijkhoff (1993: 93–96) provides an overview of reduplication in Papiamentu. Productive reduplication is largely restricted to adjectives and adverbs, expressing intensification. In addition, plural reduplication of nouns is attested (see Feature 23 "Expression of nominal plural meaning"); perhaps more frequently, noun reduplication occurs with denominal adverbial or adjectival functions.
Also, Dijkhoff provides two examples of iterative verb reduplication. Finally, there's a small number of reduplicated lexicalized deadjectival, deverbal, and denominal nouns.

Values

Word-class-changing function

Example 47-52:
Nan a drenta manera di kustumber ketu-ketu.
Nan
3pl
a
pfv
drenta
enter
manera
like
di
of
kustumber
habit
ketu~ketu.
quiet~quiet
As usual, they entered quietly.

Source: Pinto 1965: 63

Example 47-54:
fini; fini-fini; pega; pega-pega
fini;
fine/small
fini~fini;
fine~fine
pega;
to.stick
pega~pega
stick~stick
fine, small; fine cactus hairs; to stick; gecko

Source: Kouwenberg 2003a: 163

Example 47-55:
blòki-blòki; bala-bala; kabes-kabes; bùmper-bùmper; pia-pia
blòki~blòki;
square~square
bala~bala;
ball~ball
kabes~kabes;
head~head
bùmper~bùmper;
bumper~bumper
pia~pia
foot~foot
in squares; in a design of circles; head to head (for example, of people in a crowd); bumper-to-bumper; very slowly

Source: Dijkhoff 1993: 93-94

Confidence:
Very certain