Datapoint Papiamentu/Expression of nominal plural meaning

Where the noun is followed by a postnominal adjective phrase or by a di-PP, the plural enclitic nan either follows the head noun directly, or follows the postnominal material. The plural marker cannot follow other PPs or relative clauses. Muller (1989, in Homenahe) shows that Noun + Adjective combinations which have compound-like interpretations take the plural marker after the Adjective. Muller (1989, Inleiding) shows that plural marking in the case of Noun + di-PP depends in part on the function of the di-PP: where the di-PP is a possessor, plural follows it. Where the Noun+ di-PP is a phrasal compound, nan either follows the head noun or the di-PP.

Reduplication is marginal as a device for creating plurals, and usually involves secondary connotations such as accumulation and scattered presence.

Values

Plural word following the noun Frequency: 90.0%

Example 47-48:
e buki nan di skol vs. e buki di skol nan
e
def
buki
book
nan
pl
di
of
skol
school
vs.
vs.
e
def
buki
book
di
of
skol
school
nan
pl
the books of the school/ the schoolbooks vs. the schoolbooks

Source: Muller 1989b: 542

Example 47-50:
dama i kabayero nan
dama
lady
i
and
kabayero
gentleman
nan
pl
ladies and gentlemen
Confidence:
Very certain

Plural reduplication Frequency: 10.0%

Example 47-49:
Anochi ela sinta korta e kweru ku su santu pasenshi na repirepi.
Anochi
night
el
3sg
a
pfv
sinta
sit
korta
cut
e
def
kweru
skin
ku
with
su
poss
santu
holy
pasenshi
patience
na
loc
repi~repi.
strip~pl
At night he sat and patiently cut the skin into numerous strips.

Source: Kouwenberg 2003a: 162

Confidence:
Very certain