Datapoint Papiamentu/Special dependent person forms for subject and object

Kouwenberg (2007) argues that a distinction should be made between clitic/weak and non-clitic/strong pronouns. Additionally, emphatic/independent forms exist. As can be seen here, it is the emphatic forms which may be used independently. See Feature 62 "Expression of pronominal subjects" for further discussion.

Values

Dependent subject and object forms

Example 47-34:
mi, bo/bu, e, nos, boso, nan
mi,
1sg
bo/bu,
2sg
e,
3sg
nos,
1pl
boso,
2pl
nan
3pl
I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they

Source: Kouwenberg 2007c: 206

Example 47-35:
ami, abo, ele, (a)nos, (a)boso, (a)nan
a-mi,
emph-1sg
a-bo,
emph-2sg
ele,
3sg.emph
(a)-nos,
(emph-)1pl
(a)-boso,
(emph-)2pl
(a)-nan
(emph-)3pl
I, you, he/she/it, we, you, they
Confidence:
Very certain