The main pattern in Ternate Chabacano negation is one of the features that can be attributed to the Philippine languages, even though the labels of the negative particles quite apparently have their origins in the Iberian lexifier language, and nwáy comes from the Spanish no hay 'there is not'. The properties of the Tagalog negator wala in particular have influenced the use of nwáy in Ternate Chabacano. The Philippine languages make a distinction in negative particles between standard negation and the negatives of existence. Wala is used in existential and indefinite constructions, as well as in possessive constructions (Schachter & Otanes 1972: 521). As in Ternate Chabacano, the positive counterpart of the existential negator is a different word.