Datapoint Batavia Creole/Present reference of stative verbs and past perfective reference of dynamic verbs

Tense and aspect marking in Batavia Creole is optional, as Example 63 shows. In this example, the unmarked verbs refer to a past perfective situation. Some stative verbs like teng 'have, be' are zero-marked for non-future reference.

Values

Stative verbs with present reference and dynamic verbs with past perfective reference are marked differently

Example 43-62:
Ile teng ung kabalu.
Ile
he
teng
have
ung
a
kabalu.
horse
He had a horse.

Source: Maurer 2011: 66

Example 43-59:
Undi dja anda?
Undi
where
dja
pfv
anda?
go
Where did he go?

Source: Maurer 2011: 144

Example 43-63:
Ile buska ung moler. [...] Ile kadja.
Ile
3sg
buska
look.for
ung
a
moler.
wife
[...]
[...]
Ile
3sg
kadja.
get.married
He looked for a wife. [...] He got married.

Source: Maurer 2011: 128

Confidence:
Certain