Datapoint Santome/Tone

Ferraz (1979) claims that Santome lacks phonologically signficant tone, although it is used as a stylistic or emphatic device. Maurer (2008), however, argues that Santome has a simple tone system with a two-way contrast. The examples are taken from Maurer (2008).

Values

Simple tone system, for lexical and grammatical distinctions

Example 35-262:
Xi tudu mwala myole ká sêbê kwa se [...].
Xi
if
tudu
all
mwala
woman
myole
today
irr
sêbê
know
kwa
thing
se
dem
[...].
[...]
If all today's women would know that [...].
Example 35-265:
Bô ka kume, mwala ka kume, anzu ka kume [...].
2sg
ka
hab
kume,
eat
mwala
woman
ka
hab
kume,
eat
anzu
baby
ka
hab
kume
eat
[...].
[...]
You eat, your wife eats, the baby eats [...].
Example 35-264:
lala; lálá
lala;
grater
lálá
grate
grater (LL); to grate (HH)

Source: Maurer 2008: 259

Example 35-263:
ôkô; ôkô
ôkô;
calabash
ôkô
hole
calabash; hole (in a tree or a stone)
Example 35-266:
mwálá, kasó, plókò, àlè
mwálá,
woman
kasó,
dog
plókò,
pig
àlè
king
woman, dog, pig, king
Example 35-267:
Mwálá kùmè. Plókó kùmè. Kasó kùmè. Àlè kùmè.
Mwálá
woman
kùmè.
eat
Plókó
pig
kùmè.
eat
Kasó
dog
kùmè.
eat
Àlè
king
kùmè.
eat
The woman ate. The pig ate. The dog ate. The king ate.
Example 35-268:
bóbó vs. bóbò, kúlù vs. kúlú
bóbó
idiot
vs.
vs.
bóbò,
mulatto
kúlù
unripe
vs.
vs.
kúlú
dard
idiot vs. mulatto, unripe vs. dark
Confidence:
Very certain