Datapoint Casamancese Creole/Predicative noun phrases and predicative locative phrases

Both i and can be translated by the English copula (to) be. However, those two elements do not express exactly the same semantic nuance. With i, we have a neutral equative relationship, with no inference about its pragmatics or contextual circumstances. With , the equative relationship has a resultative implication, i.e. Joŋ ø sá piskador 'John is now a fisherman' means implicitly 'Before, John had another job, now he has become a fisherman'. The contrast between i and probably reflects the contrast between Portuguese ser (the Casamancese copula i can probably be (partly at least) traced back to Portuguese é, 3SG.PRS.IND of ser) and estar (etymon of Casamancese sá).

Values

Overlap

Example 34-120:
Joŋ i piskador. — Joŋ piskador.
Joŋ
John
ø
pfv
i
cop
piskador.
fisherman
 
Joŋ
John
ø
pfv
cop
piskador.
fisherman
John is a fisherman. — John is now (has turned into) a fisherman.
Example 34-121:
Gósiŋ Joŋ na Sicor.
Gósiŋ
now
Joŋ
John
ø
pfv
cop
na
in
Sicor.
Ziguinchor
Now, John is in Ziguinchor.
Example 34-119:
Gósiŋ Mariya na Sicor.
Gósiŋ
Now
Mariya
Mary
ø
pfv
cop
na
in
Sicor.
Ziguinchor
Now, Mary is in Ziguinchor.
Confidence:
Very certain