Datapoint Berbice Dutch/Complementizer with verbs of speaking

The clausal complements of verba dicendi are introduced either by the serial verb bi(fi) 'say' (usually in the short form bi), by complementizer dati 'that', or by a null complementizer. The distribution of these complement types depends at least on the selecting verb, and on the nature of the complement (direct/indirect speech). As a result, it is not possible to generalize over this class of verbs in terms of the frequency of the different complement types. Occasional use of complementizer bi(fi) followed by a clause introduced by dati suggests that serial bi(fi) has the same subcategorization properties as its main verb counterpart, i.e. that it selects for a CP.

Values

No complementizer Frequency: 25.0%

Example 28-156:
o bi di blur pam bi da iʃ drai
o
3sg
bi
say
di
the
bluru
brother
pama
tell
bi
say
dat
let
iʃi
2pl
drai
turn
He said his brother told (him): let us turn back.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 333

Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer identical to bare ‘say’ Frequency: 25.0%

Example 28-157:
di man biftɛ bi da orsa furkoputor
di
the
man
man
bifi-tɛ
say-pfv
bi
say
da
cop
ori
3sg
so
foc
furkopu-tɛ
sell-pfv
ori
3sg
The man said that it was he who had sold him.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 403

Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer consists of ‘say’ plus some other marker Frequency: 25.0%

Example 28-158:
eni pamatɛkɛ bihi dat ɛkɛ ma mu danga ka
eni
3pl
pama-tɛ
tell-pfv
ɛkɛ
1sg
bifi
say
dati
comp
ɛkɛ
1sg
ma
irr
mu
go
danga
there
ka
neg
They told me that I should not go there.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 405

Confidence:
Very certain

Complementizer not synchronically related to ‘say’ Frequency: 25.0%

Example 28-159:
o bi dat ani wɛtɛ kɛna bin kumtɛ fan ɛk ni waŋʃi ka
o
3sg
bi
say
dati
comp
andri
other
wɛtɛ
white
kɛnɛ-apu
peron-pl
bin
tns
kumu-tɛ
come-prf
fan
from
ɛkɛ
1sg
nimi
know
wanga-ʃi
where-side
ka
neg
He said that some white people had come from I don't know where.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 332

Confidence:
Very certain