Datapoint Berbice Dutch/Position of tense, aspect, and mood markers in relation to the verb

Perfective and Imperfective Aspect are marked by way of suffixes on the verb, hence immediately following the verb. Tense and mood are marked by way of preverbal particles. Very occasional use of adverbials alwes 'always' (a loan from Guyanese Creole English) and noiti 'never' in a position between the preverbal tense marker and the verbal complex suggests separability, hence I have included the option "in a leftward position". But it should be noted that cases of this kind are attested only in the speech of one person. In the speech of others, alwes takes a more peripheral position, and while noiti is attested in a preverbal position for several speakers, I have no examples where it cooccurs with preverbal markers.

Values

Immediately preceding the verb Frequency: 47.4%

Example 28-80:
titɛk wa kalin wa das ku di bokap an bain an jefjə
titi
time
ɛkɛ
1sg
wa
pst
kali
small
ini
3pl
wa
pst
das
hab
ku
catch
di
the
boko-apu
Amerindian-pl
an
and
ba
kill
ini
3pl
an
and
jefi
eat
ini
3pl
When I was small they would catch the Indians and kill them and eat them.

Source: Kouwenberg 2007b: 27

Example 28-81:
ɛk ma pam ju en bɛrɛ
ɛkɛ
1sg
ma
irr
pama
tell
ju
2sg
en
a
bɛrɛ
story
I will tell you a story.

Source: Kouwenberg 2007b: 31

Confidence:
Very certain

Immediately following the verb Frequency: 47.4%

Example 28-82:
lombo plɛkɛm wangeni bwa drungwa stɛdi
lombo
bad
plɛkɛ
place
wanga
where
eni
3pl
bu-a
drink-ipfv
drungu-a
get.drunk-ipfv
stɛdi
steady
A bad place, where they drink and get drunk all the time.

Source: Kouwenberg 2007b: 29

Example 28-83:
bɛri moi ababaka, potɛ nau
bɛri
Berry
moi
good
ababa
anymore
ka
neg
potɛ-tɛ
old-pfv
nau
now
Berry is not good anymore, (he) has gotten old.

Source: Kouwenberg 2007b: 30

Confidence:
Very certain

In a leftward position Frequency: 5.3%

Example 28-84:
di jɛrtok bi aʃu pruf di gu di, ju ma alwe suko
di
the
jɛrma
woman
toko
child
bi
say
aʃi
if
ju
2sg
pruf
taste
di
the
gutu
thing
di
dem
ju
2sg
ma
irr
alwes
always
suku
want
o
3sg
The girl said if you taste this stuff, you will always want it.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 72

Example 28-85:
wa noiti kop tei fan di ʃapap ka
iʃi
1pl
wa
pst
noiti
never
kopu
buy
tei
tea
fan
from
di
the
ʃap-apu
shop-pl
ka
neg
We never bought tea from the shops.

Source: Kouwenberg 1994a: 73

Confidence:
Uncertain