Datapoint Berbice Dutch/Functions of reduplication

Iconic reduplication of verbs and adjectives is frequently attested in spontaneous usage and easily elicited. In contrast, iconic noun reduplication is only occasionally attested, and proved marginal also in that elicitation of noun reduplications was invariably rejected by speakers (see Feature 23 "Expression of nominal plural meaning").
Iconic verb reduplication is accompanied by an iterative semantic effect (punctual verbs) and/or a continuative semantic effect (nonpunctual verbs), with various secondary effects such as aimlessness and object distribution. Adjective reduplication has an augmentative or intensifying effect (gradable adjectives) and an emphatic effect (all adjectives). Finally, noun reduplication carries a distributive plural interpretation.
Word-class changing reduplication is unproductive. There are two forms which involve reduplication of this kind only; both involve the derivation of an instrument noun from verb input. They are: pundipundi 'sugar cane mill' < pundi 'to press, squeeze (juice)' and bainbain 'cover' < bain 'to cover.

Values

Only iconic functions

Example 28-53:
di wotap draitɛ sa kalkali fi ɛkɛ
di
the
woto-apu
word-pl
drai-tɛ
turn-pfv
so
so
kali~kali
small~small
fi
for
ɛkɛ
1sg
The words become so tiny for me. (referring to failing eyesight)

Source: Kouwenberg 2003b: 260

Example 28-54:
ʃi kɛnap masi korkoritɛ wɛrɛ
ʃi
3sg.poss
kɛnɛ-apu
person-pl
masi
must
kori~kori-tɛ
work~work-pfv
wɛrɛ
again
Her people must have worked and worked again (until they had earned enough money).

Source: Kouwenberg 1991: 84

Example 28-55:
en tantanja bat djas ju latɛ, in fal di mingjaŋ
eni
3pl
tan~tan-a
stand~stand-ipfv
bat
but
djas
just
ju
2sg
la-tɛ,
reach-pfv
eni
3pl
falu
fall
di
the
mingi-anga
water-loc
They are just standing there, but as soon as you get there, they fall into the water.

Source: Kouwenberg 1991: 85

Confidence:
Very certain