Datapoint Kriol/Predicative locative phrases

Predicative property expressions always occur without a copula in present tense, which is why Value 2 was chosen. They do occur with the past tense marker bin in the past tense, which is not analysed as a copula here. However, they do occur with the copula bi with future time reference.
Another complication concerns the function of stative verbs like stap 'live, stay' or jidan 'sit, be, stay' which could be said to be taking on a copula-like function, as in Imin telim mi thed ... ston alabat im jidan jeya na 'he told me (that) those stones are all around there' (DA98_02_raintime) or
Wi garra jidan la woda olagija.
'We may have to live in the water forever.' (Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61)

Values

No copula

Example 25-289:
Thei langa yad.
Thei
3pl
langa
loc
yad.
yard
They [are] in the yard. (referring to chickens)
Example 25-57:
Oletaim, yuno, wa mibala bin la steshen.
Oletaim,
always
yuno,
you.know
wa
subord
mibala
1pl
bin
pst
la
loc
steshen.
station
All the time, you know, when/that we were on the station.
Example 25-14:
Fo Jukuna kid iya.
Fo
dat/poss
Jukuna
Jukuna
kid
child
iya.
here
Jukuna's child is here.

Source: Hudson 1985: 72

Example 25-190:
Bijilain main tharrei.
Biji-lain
fishing-line
main
1sg:poss
tharr-ei.
dist-dir
My fishing line is there. (Said as a warning)
Example 25-29:
Imin la Ningbingi yet, afta imin go la Agail then.
Im=in
3sg=pst
la
loc
Ningbingi
Ningbingi
yet,
yet
afta
afterwards
im=in
3sg=pst
go
go
la
loc
Agail
Argyle
then.
then
He was in Ningbingi at that time, afterwards he went to Argyle.
Confidence:
Very certain