Datapoint Kriol/Functions of reduplication

Reduplication of verbs expresses iteration of activities or plurality of participants. Reduplication of nouns and adjectives in a noun phrase expressed plurality of referents. Reduplication of predicative adjectives expresses plurality or distributivity of the subject referent. All of these are iconic functions.

Values

Only iconic functions

Example 25-35:
Thet kenggaru bin toktok.
Thet
dem
kenggaru
kangaroo
bin
pst
tok~tok.
red.talk
The kangaroo was talking.
Example 25-116:
Thet olgamanolgaman olabat jingat na "[...]".
Thet
dem
olgaman~olgaman
red.older.woman
olabat
3pl
jing-at
sing-out
na
now
"[...]".
[...]
Those women, they call out now: "[...]"
Example 25-158:
Thet difrendifrenwan.
Thet
dem
difren~difren-wan.
red.different-adj
They are different ones.
Example 25-155:
Im-in baj-im-ap-baj-im-ap.
Im-in
3sg-pst
baj-im-ap~baj-im-ap.
pass-tr-up-pass-tr-up
He was bringing it.

Source: Sandefur 1979: 117

Example 25-18:
Imin dalim ola lilwanlilwan kokiroj.
Im=in
3s=pst
dal-im
tell-tr
ola
all
lilwan~lilwan
red.little:adj
kokiroj.
cockroach
It told the little cockroaches.

Source: Bennett 1986: 3

Example 25-156:
Wan lain deibin gowin-gowin.
Wan
one
lain
line
dei=bin
3pl=pst
gowin~gowin.
red.go:in
They went in one line. (referring to cockroaches)

Source: Bennett 1986: 6

Example 25-157:
Dei bin traitrai. Najing.
Dei
3pl
bin
pst
trai~trai.
red.try
Najing.
nothing
They tried and tried and tried. But it was useless.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-143:
Wanbala olmen bin ran garrimap thad boks. Imin rekin im thad bigwan-bigwan peket.
Wan-bala
one-adj2
olmen
man
bin
pst
ran
run
garrimap
pick:up
thad
dem
boks.
box
Im=in
3sg=pst
rekin
think/say
im
3sg
thad
dem
bigwan-bigwan
red.big:adj
peket.
packet
One old man ran and picked up that box. He reckoned it was those big packets.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Confidence:
Certain