Datapoint Kriol/Expression of nominal plural meaning

Plural marking by reduplication is restricted to a subset of nominals denoting humans, and to adjectives which can be reduplicated to indicate multiplicity of referents irrespective of animacy. The main strategy of plural marking, which is also found with higher animates and inanimates, is the use of the plural determiners ole ~ ola ~ orla ~o lda or the plural suffix -lot ~ -lat on demonstratives (see also Feature 22 "Occurrence of nominal plural markers"). Occasionally, the English plural suffix -s is found in Kriol, but it is not employed consistently and should be considered an acrolectal feature. The collective suffix -mob is not treated as a plural marker here (see Feature 24 "The associative plural marker").

Values

Plural word preceding the noun Frequency: 63.6%

Example 25-132:
D. im med langa ole boi.
D.
D.
im
3sg
med
mad
langa
loc
ole
pl
boi.
boy
D. is mad with the boys.
Example 25-146:
Brom top, yu ken luk ole haus ebriwea.
Brom
from
top,
top
yu
2sg
ken
can
luk
see
ole
pl
haus
house
ebriwea.
everywhere
From the top, you can see the houses everywhere.
Example 25-147:
Wot abat yubala jiftim olabat dijlat pikanini?!
Wot
what
abat
about
yubala
2pl
jift-im
shift-tr
olabat
3pl
dij-lat
prox-pl
pikanini?!
child
How about you lot move them, these children?!
Example 25-117:
Thei bin beltim im tharrei, thetlot kid.
Thei
3pl
bin
pst
belt-im
hit-tr
im
3sg
tharrei,
there
thet-lot
dem-pl
kid.
child
They hit him over there, those kids (did).
Example 25-138:
Ai bin bilimap olda eig.
Ai
1sg
bin
pst
bil-im-ap
fill-tr-up
olda
pl
eig.
egg
I filled it up with the eggs.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 65

Example 25-135:
Yubala go gedim main daga. Nomo wori bla ola pipul.
Yubala
2pl
go
go
ged-im
get-tr
main
1sg.poss
daga.
tucker
Nomo
neg
wori
worry
bla
dat/poss
ola
pl
pipul.
people
You lot go and get my food. Don’t worry about the people.

Source: Bennett 1986: 1

Example 25-141:
Wal dislot bed, fram antop dei bin – dei bin lukinat na.
Wal
well
dis-lot
prox-pl
bed,
bird
fram
from
antop
above
dei
3pl
bin
pst
 
dei
3pl
bin
pst
luk-in-at
look-prog2-out
na.
now
But these birds were watching from above.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-142:
Ala munanga bin lus olabat shap [...] ebarrijing!
Ala
pl
munanga
non-Aboriginal
bin
pst
lus
lose
olabat
3pl
shap
shop
[...]
[...]
ebarrijing!
belongings
The non-Aboriginals lost their shops [...] (all their) belongings!

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-149:
Wi bin siyim garra orla kid.
Wi
1sg
bin
pst
siy-im
see-tr
garra
com/ins
orla
pl
kid.
child
We saw her with the children.

Source: Hudson 1985: 74

Confidence:
Very certain

Plural reduplication Frequency: 27.3%

Example 25-116:
Thet olgamanolgaman olabat jingat na "[...]".
Thet
dem
olgaman~olgaman
red.older.woman
olabat
3pl
jing-at
sing-out
na
now
"[...]".
[...]
Those women, they call out now: "[...]"
Example 25-148:
Bat ole holidei oldei olmaolman wi yusdu getim.
Bat
but
ole
pl
holidei
holiday
oldei
always/hab
olma~olman
red.older.man
wi
1pl
yusdu
hab
get-im.
get-tr
But during all holidays with the old people we used to get them (traditional stone tools).
Example 25-113:
Dei bin jingginabat dislot olmenolmenwan.
Dei
3pl
bin
pst
jingg-in-abat
think-prog2-about
dis-lot
prox-pl
olmen~olmen-wan.
red.men-adj
They were thinking about it, these old men.

Source: Sandefur & Sandefur 1982: 61

Example 25-18:
Imin dalim ola lilwanlilwan kokiroj.
Im=in
3s=pst
dal-im
tell-tr
ola
all
lilwan~lilwan
red.little:adj
kokiroj.
cockroach
It told the little cockroaches.

Source: Bennett 1986: 3

Example 25-22:
Thei bin bayimbat ola nyuwannyuwan modiga na. Yu luk olkain modiga nyuwannyuwan la B.
Thei
3pl
bin
pst
bay-im-bat
buy-tr-prog
ola
pl
nyuwan~nyuwan
red.new:adj
modiga
car
na.
now
Yu
2sg
luk
look
olkain
all.kind
modiga
car
nyuwan~nyuwan
red.new:adj
la
loc
B.
B.
They bought new cars then. You look at all the cars that are new at B. (place name)

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-143:
Wanbala olmen bin ran garrimap thad boks. Imin rekin im thad bigwan-bigwan peket.
Wan-bala
one-adj2
olmen
man
bin
pst
ran
run
garrimap
pick:up
thad
dem
boks.
box
Im=in
3sg=pst
rekin
think/say
im
3sg
thad
dem
bigwan-bigwan
red.big:adj
peket.
packet
One old man ran and picked up that box. He reckoned it was those big packets.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Confidence:
Very certain

Plural suffix Frequency: 9.1%

Example 25-46:
Sambala elikopta bin bajimap lilbit daga, maidi tu, thri deis [...] leita.
Sam-bala
some-adj2
elikopta
helicopter
bin
pst
bajimap
bring:tr
lilbit
little.bit
daga,
food
maidi
maybe
tu,
two
thri
three
dei-s
day-pl
[...]
[...]
leita.
later
Some helicopters brought a little bit of food, maybe two [or] three days later.

Source: Angelo et al. 1998a

Example 25-103:
Wen wi bin langa Carlton, en Missis bin oldei givit mibala boksis.
Wen
when
wi
1pl.excl
bin
pst
langa
loc
Carlton,
Carlton
en
and
Missis
Missis
bin
pst
oldei
always
giv-it
give-tr
mibala
1pl.excl
boks-is.
box-pl
When we were [working] on Carlton Station, and the Missus used to give us boxes. (with matches, to burn the grass)
Confidence:
Certain