Datapoint Nigerian Pidgin/Comitatives and instrumentals

The secondary preposition wìt ‘with’ can be used with both a comitative and an instrumental function, but serialized verb constructions utilizing tek ‘take’ are used to show the instrumental, while serialized verb constructions utilizing folo ‘follow’ are used to show the comitative.

Values

Identity

Example 17-109:
À bay nyam wìt yù.
À
1sg.sbj
bay
buy
nyam
yam
wìt
com
yù.
2sg.obj
I bought yams with you.

Source: Faraclas 1996: 142-143

Example 17-107:
À ko̱t nyam wìt nayf.
À
1sg.sbj
ko̱t
cut
nyam
yam
wìt
ins
nayf.
knife
I cut the yams with a knife.

Source: Faraclas 1996: 75, 142

Example 17-111:
À ko̱t nyam wìt nayf.
À
1sg.sbj
ko̱t
cut
nyam
yam
wìt
ins
nayf.
knife
I cut the yams with a knife.

Source: Faraclas 1996: 142-143

Example 17-112:
À tek nayf ko̱t nyam.
À
1sg.sbj
tek
take.ins
nayf
knife
ko̱t
cut
nyam.
yam
I cut the yams with a knife.

Source: Faraclas 1996: 142-143

Confidence:
Intermediate