Datapoint Nicaraguan Creole English/Predicative locative phrases

Constructions with English-derived copulas appear to be ousting both constructions without any copula and with the locative copula de.

Values

Variable copula

Example 11-232:
So wan kyapm deh, ih se [...].
So
so
wan
one
kyapm
captain
deh,
cop.loc
ih
3sg
se
say
[...].
[...]
So one captain was there and he said [...].

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-233:
So wen di giiz wen pupu, dier woz di ring!
So
So
wen
when
di
art.def
giiz
goose
wen
go.pst
pupu,
defecate
dier
dem.loc
woz
cop.pst
di
art.def
ring!
ring
So when the geese defecated, the ring was there!

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-236:
Mi iina toun.
Mi
1sg
iina
in
toun.
town
I am in town.
Example 11-234:
Aktuali di Heman dem iin di seem spat we dei begin so moch iaz ago.
Aktuali
actually
di
art.def
Heman
Heman
dem
pl
iin
in
di
art.def
seem
same
spat
spot
we
rel
dei
3pl
begin
begin
so
so
moch
much
ia-z
year-pl
ago.
ago
At present, the Hemans are on the same spot where they started so many years ago.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-235:
[...] di meed huu woz deer [...].
[...]
[...]
di
art.def
meed
maid
huu
rel
woz
cop.pst
deer
dem.loc
[...].
[...]
[...] the maid who was there [...].

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-237:
Kriol piipl iz hier bikaa dem kom as sliev.
Kriol
Creole
piipl
people
iz
cop.prs
hier
here
bikaa
because
dem
3pl
kom
come
as
as
sliev.
slave
The Creole people live here because they were brought in as slaves.

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-238:
Wan taim a Nikaragwan faarma mi deh weh riid iina di nyuuzpiepa bout [...].
Wan
one
taim
time
a
art.indf
Nikaragwan
Nicaraguan
faarma
farmer
mi
pst
deh
cop.loc
weh
rel
riid
read
iina
in
di
art.def
nyuuzpiepa
newspaper
bout
about
[...].
[...]
Once there was a Nicaraguan farmer who read in the newspaper about [...].
Confidence:
Very certain