Datapoint Nicaraguan Creole English/Distance contrasts in demonstratives

According to Holm (1978: 279), the emphatic demonstrative pronouns (or adjectives) dis-ya and dat-de may both be used both prenominally and discontinually.

Values

Two-way contrast

Example 11-80:
di ring
di
dem
ring
ring
this ring

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-81:
iin dat wie
iin
in
dat
dem
wie
way
in that way

Source: Nicaragua project recordings CD

Example 11-82:
iina disya jongl
iina
in
dis-ya
dem-emph
jongl
jungle
in this very jungle
Example 11-83:
dis hous; disya hous; dat hous; datde hous; dat hous de
dis
dem
hous;
house
dis-ya
dem-emph
hous;
house
dat
dem
hous;
hous
dat-de
dem-emph
hous;
hous
dat
dem
hous
house
de
emph
this house; this very house; that house; that very house; that very house
Confidence:
Very certain