Datapoint Nicaraguan Creole English/Geographic variation: phonology

Phonological variation is not due to geographical factors but to the specific languages involved in the formation of some variants of Nicaraguan Creole English.
Up to the present day, Rama Cay Creole English is felt to be the most idiosyncratic variety (Bartens 2009: 302).
As far as the phonology of Rama Cay Creole English is concerned, Holm (1983: 115) mentions flapped or trilled /r/ as opposed to the "English" /r/ or other varieties of Nicaraguan Creole English as well as markedly different intonational contours and stress patterns. The German missionaries who lived among the Rama in the mid-nineteenth century have been held responsible for the peculiarities in the intonation and stress patterns in Rama Cay Creole English (Holm 1983: 115).



Very certain